House Bill 1848, sponsored by Delegate J. Paul Councill, Jr., during
the 1997 session of the General Assembly, mandates that the State Council
of Higher Education for Virginia, in consultation with the Virginia Department
of Education and the accredited teacher-education programs of the Commonwealth's
institutions of higher education, develop guidelines "to seek to ensure
that all students matriculating in teacher-training programs meet the standards
embodied in Virginia's Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel
and have the requisite skills for the implementation of the Board of Education's
Six-Year Educational Technology Plan for Virginia." Another section
of HB 1848 mandates that the governing bodies of the public institutions
of higher education "establish programs to seek to ensure that all
graduates have the technology skills necessary to compete in the 21st Century,
and particularly, that all students matriculating in teacher-training programs
receive instruction in the effective use of educational technology."
The State Council of Higher Education (SCHEV), in consultation with
staff of the Department of Education and the leadership of the Virginia
Association of Colleges of Teacher Education and other related groups,
appointed a representative task force to develop the guidelines required
by House Bill 1848 (see the list of members in an Appendix to this report).
The Task Force on Technology in Teacher Education (the Task Force) worked
through the summer of 1997 in order to complete its assignment by the fall
of 1997. The stated goal of the Task Force was to provide guidance to all
the approved teacher-education programs in the Commonwealth concerning
what is reasonably necessary in order for graduates of their programs to
meet the standards specified by the General Assembly. These guidelines
are advisory only and have no regulatory effect in their current form.
In recognition of the potential fiscal impact that implementation of
the guidelines would have on teacher-education programs, the Council has
placed high priority on the technology initiatives for higher education
institutions contained in its 1998-2000 budget recommendations. These
recommendations include a request for additional funding for institutes
which would provide technology training for the 30,000 secondary school
teachers in the Commonwealth.
These guidelines were reviewed by SCHEV's Instructional Programs Advisory
Committee (the chief academic officers of the public institutions of higher
education) and were approved by the Council of Higher Education. The Task
Force has recommended that the guidelines also be reviewed by the Advisory
Board on Teacher Education and Licensure (ABTEL). ABTEL was established
by Section 22.1-305.2 of the Code of Virginia to advise the Virginia
Board of Education on policies and procedures applicable to teacher education
and the licensure of school personnel.
The proposed Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel
to which House Bill 1848 refers were approved by the Board of Education
in June of 1996 for submission to the process required by the Administrative
Process Act (APA). Public hearings were held on the proposed standards
on September 17, 1997, and the period for public comment closed on October
31, 1997. ABTEL has completed review of the public comments and has submitted
the proposed standards to the Board of Education, which is expected to
take final action on them in early 1998. A copy of the proposed technology
standards is reproduced in the appendices of this report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
|Guideline 1:||A departmental technology advisory committee should be
formed and charged with overseeing infrastructure planning and management
within the school or department of education, in close coordination with
institution-wide efforts (one or more overlapping members are recommended).
Its duties should include:
|Guideline 2:||The infrastructure should be designed and installed to
provide the greatest possible flexibility for connection and to maximize
use of the diverse hardware existing on most campuses. The following network
considerations should be addressed:
|Guideline 3:||In order to be effective and safe for all users, plans
for an operational infrastructure network should address important management
and control issues, including the following:|
|Guideline 4:||Faculty classroom use: Every faculty member
teaching a course offered by a teacher-education program (including adjuncts
and teaching assistants) should have access to a network-ready multi-media
computer for classroom use. A network-ready computer would connect the
classroom to the Internet. Hardware for multi-media capability would include
speakers (or headphones), a sound card, a CD-ROM drive, a microphone, a
projection device, and a camera for desktop video-conferencing. The overall
configuration of the computer should be sufficient for modeling and demonstration
of current software. The hardware may be mobile.
Comment: A national goal for K-12 schools is that, by the year 2000, every classroom in America will be connected to the Internet. It seems reasonable to expect teacher-education programs to adhere to the same timetable and to have every classroom equipped with either a network-ready, multi-media computer or built-in networking capability by the new millennium.
|Guideline 5:||Faculty office use: Every full-time faculty
member in a teacher-education program should be assigned a network-ready,
multi-media computer for his/her office at institutional expense. In addition,
adjuncts and teaching assistants should have access to the same computer
resources at an on-campus location. The configuration of the computer should
be sufficient to operate on the Internet and to demonstrate current software.
Because versatility across specific computer environments is preferred,
faculty should have access to a variety of platforms.
Comment: Currently, there is approximately a 50/50 split among public schools between Apple computers and IBM-compatible PC's . Because students from each teacher-education program will be taking teaching positions in schools in which one or the other environment predominates, in the short term it will remain necessary for teacher-education programs to have both platforms available, although both need not be supported equally.
|Guideline 6:||Student access: Every student enrolled in a teacher-education
program should have access to a network-ready, multi-media computer that
meets the specifications needed to operate current software in the typical
K-12 school. Student ownership of computers should be encouraged. It is,
therefore, incumbent upon the institution (or school/department) to supply
low-cost or no-cost options for students who have demonstrated need of
assistance in acquiring the necessary computer resources, such as Internet
access. In addition, because versatility across specific computer environments
is preferred, students should have access to a variety of platforms.
|Guideline 7:||Peripheral equipment: Every faculty member teaching a course offered by a teacher-education program (including adjuncts and teaching assistants) should have access to the peripheral equipment listed in the Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel (e.g., scanner/digitizers, projection devices, CD-ROM's, graphing calculators, etc.). Students should have access to the peripherals necessary to practice and demonstrate related computer skills consistent with the current demands of the typical K-12 school.|
|Guideline 8:||In order to support both pre-service teacher education
and in-service professional development programs, faculty and students
should have access to specific software, including the following:
|Guideline 9:||A formal process should be established within the teacher-education
program for selecting appropriate software for instructional purposes.
Faculty and students should have access to a software library containing
a variety of software for each content area specific to the grade
levels served, including software related to the Standards of Learning
and electronic textbooks. Pre-service teacher-education programs that prepare
candidates for K-12 licensure should build a software library for all areas
of content and all grade levels, as well as the software used by the public
schools for administrative purposes.
Comment: The departmental technology advisory committee (see Guideline 1 above) might be instrumental in establishing the formal process for software selection.
|Guideline 10:||In order to develop proficiency in subject-specific software,
teacher- education students should have ready access to software for both
in-classroom and out-of-classroom use throughout their teacher-education
program. Software libraries should include software commonly used by teachers
in Virginia public schools as well as emerging categories of software that
are likely to be used in the first year of teaching.
Comment: In mathematics, for example, teacher education students should become knowledgeable in several types of software. These include software programs that allow students to explore and construct connections between numerical, algebraic and graphical aspects of mathematical topics, as well as software that allows for the acquisition and mathematical and statistical analysis of real-world data. Some specific categories of such software include computational, symbolic-and manipulation, and graphing-visualization programs; geometry exploration programs; topic-specific programs; and collections of software programs for graphing calculators that address the Standards of Learning.
Comment: Technical assistance is often an afterthought in technology
efforts. However, without a well-designed technical assistance system efforts
to infuse technology into teacher-education programs will surely fail.
The effects of original investments in equipment and staff development
will be severely tempered if an on-going system of "just in time"
help is not provided. The technical support system must be thought of as
a core element of a technology plan. It is an investment that must be considered
as the overall system or approach is developed. Without good technical
assistance users will become discouraged and will not take necessary risks
to adopt technology into their teaching repertories.
How much technical assistance an institution has and how it is provided
will vary greatly. Yet the premise that institutions have a responsibility
to provide adequate amounts of high quality technical assistance to faculty
and students should be a given.
|Guideline 11:||Each teacher-education program should have a strategic
plan or mission statement of technical assistance that is up-dated periodically
and revised based on identified needs. Technical assistance should be founded
on clearly stated purposes (e.g., making the use of technology user-friendly
by solving operating problems and helping faculty integrate technology
into courses) and should be supported by specific budgetary allocations
on an on-going basis.
Comment: Technical assistance needs to have a clear direction and expectations need to be spelled out so users know what kind of service they can request. In addition, the service deliverers will know what their customers expect from them. Often in technical systems the user is at the mercy of the service deliverer. This cannot be the case in teacher-education programs if change is to occur. Budgetary commitments are a concrete demonstration that the institution recognizes the importance of technical assistance and is approaching it in a purposeful way.
|Guideline 12:||The functions of the technical assistance system
should include attending to hardware and network problems, resolving common
software problems, and providing support to faculty in the application
of technology to instructional endeavors.
Comment: An assistance hotline and process to dispense help quickly will keep users happy and is basic to any support system. Helping faculty with "just in time" instructional development problems should be an integral part of technical assistance. Faculty cannot be expected to solve sophisticated instructional design problems involving technology without adequate help. This latter feature of the system will become the most important one as technology efforts mature. More and more users will be literate enough to take care of their own lower-level problems and will then raise the level of their request to new applications of technology to instructional endeavors.
|Guideline 13:||A technical support system should be dynamic and
modular. It should be responsive to users' needs and provide appropriate
Comment: A technical assistance system should be one that grows with the progress of the overall effort in technology. It must meet the changing requirements of the users and the technology. In addition, its modularity should allow for segments to be easily replaced or revised when they no longer meet rapidly-changing needs. Help for hardware and software problems must be responsive, e.g., requests for help met within a reasonable time period with a high probability of user satisfaction. Backups to any system are essential, and back-up equipment should be readily available to replace on-line equipment with problems and to keep the system up and running.
|Guideline 14:||The system should be overseen by a liaison person or team
responsible for providing technical assistance on a permanent basis and
for keeping the system on the leading edge.
Comment: Such persons do not need to be technicians. They should be attached to the administration and the technical assistance operation in such a way that they can provide guidance and direction to the system. A robust system will need to constantly change, and if a decision-maker is not connected to it, the probability goes up considerably that the system will atrophy and quickly become inadequate.
|Guideline 15:||On-going training should be available for technicians
to keep abreast of technological changes.
Comment: If the skills of the technician remain static and do not develop, then users will become frustrated, and development of the technical assistance system will be retarded. In such a situation, the assistance can even become a serious impediment to development of the overall technology plan.
|Guideline 16:||All faculty in teacher-education programs should be knowledgeable
about current practice related to the use of computers and technology and
integrate them into their teaching and scholarship. Faculty should have
training in and access to education-related electronic information, video
resources, computer hardware, software, related technologies, and other
|Guideline 17:||Course syllabi, student work, portfolios, classroom observations
and interviews with students and cooperating teachers should provide evidence
of a faculty member's attainment of applicable standards and of his or
her mastery of fundamental concepts and skills for applying information
technology in educational settings. In addition, faculty members should
be expected to integrate technology into their classes.
Comment: This approach recognizes that faculty in schools, colleges and departments of education collaborate with colleagues throughout an institution in preparing students in teacher-education programs to meet the Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel. The burden is upon the higher education institution to describe and document how it accomplishes this through its approved programs.
|Guideline 18:||Faculty should be knowledgeable about legal and ethical
issues related to the use of educational technology and should incorporate
these issues in the program's curriculum.
Comment: Local school divisions all have "acceptable use" policies, and many colleges and universities, as well as the American Association of University Professors, are developing them. Given this pervasive concern, it seems appropriate for faculty in teacher-education programs to be knowledgeable about developments in this area.
|Guideline 19:||Teacher-education programs should adopt and regularly
revise a professional development plan that enables all members of their
faculty (including adjuncts and teaching assistants) and staff to stay
abreast of the latest advances in instructional technologies.
|Guideline 20:||Teacher-education programs should ensure that all members
of their faculty (including adjuncts and teaching assistants) have access
to systematic and comprehensive activities to enhance their technological
competence and intellectual vitality with respect to the use of instructional
|Guideline 21:||Opportunities should be made available for all full-time
faculty in teacher-education programs to participate on a regular basis
in professional meetings, conferences, symposia, etc. that are designed
to acquaint them with the latest technological developments.
Comment: Current practice is to provide instruction primarily in generic technology courses that include teachers from all grade levels and content areas. This strategy alone has proven ineffective. The ways in which teachers use educational technologies differ by grade level and content area. The needs of a first-grade teacher, a middle-school social-studies teacher, and a high-school geometry teacher are different. The high school teacher should be familiar with tools such as Geometers Sketch Pad and graphing calculators which are not relevant for the first-grade teacher. A more effective way to ensure that teachers will integrate appropriate uses of educational technologies into their teaching is to incorporate these uses into three areas:
|Guideline 22:||Students should enter their professional studies courses
with a foundational level of technological competency. This could be accomplished,
for example, (a) by a separate, credit-bearing course; (b) by a sequence
of modules; or (c) through performance assessments. In the cases of a stand-alone
course or a sequence of modules, examples, illustrations, and case studies
incorporated into the coursework should be drawn from K-12 teaching practice.
(Stand-alone educational technology courses are not a substitute for integration
into subject area pedagogy courses.)
Comment: In the past, standards recommending a "computer course" have been written in such a way that a course in FORTRAN programming, for example, would satisfy the requirements. Since the ultimate goal of these requirements should be improved instruction for K-12 students, it is important that standards explicitly refer to courses in educational technology and K-12 teaching practice.
|Guideline 23:||Faculty in the teacher-education program should integrate
current uses and best practices of educational technology into professional
studies courses. A substantial amount of technology instruction should
be embedded in regular courses in the professional studies curriculum.
Comment: A comprehensive national assessment by the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment concluded,"...overall, teacher-education programs do not prepare graduates to use technology as a teaching tool." This report noted that generic training will not suffice: "The kind of training, not just availability, is important. Much of today's educational technology training tends to focus on the mechanics of operating new machinery, with little about integrating technology into specific subjects." Until now, use of technology in most schools has been marked by an emphasis on computer skills rather than discipline-based learning. A transition from isolated skills practice to integration of technologies throughout disciplines is needed.
|Guideline 24:||Faculty from other disciplines should incorporate current
uses and best practices of educational technology into content courses.
Since much of the course work prospective teachers take is in the arts
and sciences, it is particularly important that students preparing to be
teachers see effective teaching with the use of technology in other parts
of the college or university.
Comment: It is noteworthy that House Bill 1848 contains a provision that addresses the need for technology training for all college graduates, not just those who will become teachers. Section C states, "In order to improve the quality of the Commonwealth's work force and educational programs, the governing bodies of the public institutions of higher education shall establish programs to seek to ensure that all graduates have the technology skills necessary to compete in the 21st Century..."
|Guideline 25:||Faculty in the teacher-education program also should integrate
current uses and best practices of educational technology into practica
and field experiences in K-12 schools. Placement with cooperating teachers
who effectively use technology in their classes should be encouraged.
Comment: In addition to the institution of higher education's integration of technology into the on-campus experiences of its students, prospective teachers need the opportunity to practice these technologies in actual field experiences. Teacher-education programs and school divisions have a vested interest in forming alliances to support effective use of technology in local schools. The higher education and school-based environments must reinforce one another by modeling effective technology use, and by supporting both teachers and teacher education students who wish to incorporate appropriate use of technology into classroom practice.
|Guideline 26:||To support its teacher-education curriculum with regard
to educational technology, each institution should provide a variety of
facilities and instructional support services. While these services are
traditionally accessed through computer centers and laboratories, through
library media resource centers, or through resource centers dedicated to
teacher-education programs, each institution should demonstrate that it
provides access to appropriate technology resources for faculty and students,
independent of how these resources are organized.
|Guideline 27:||Instructional technology support services should be able
to provide for both individual and group instruction in the use of various
educational technologies. These technologies should include microcomputers;
local and global networking capability; word processing, spreadsheet, authoring
and presentation, and desktop publishing software; multimedia presentation
capability; reception of satellite and other telecommunications programming;
and facilities for video and graphics production.
|Guideline 28:||Instructional technology support services should meet
the following minimum standards:
Comment: Both the proposed Technology Standards for Instructional
Personnel and the existing Six-Year Educational Technology Plan for
Virginia require that students in teacher-education programs demonstrate
competence in basic technology skills and the ability to integrate technology
into instruction. Guidelines to accomplish these goals include a foundation
of technology competence which is necessary concurrently with or prior
to methods courses and field experiences. This can be achieved through
a general literacy course or demonstration where the platform and software
are not as important as skill acquisition. Successful completion of such
coursework might constitute one component of an overall assessment plan.
Also critical to technology proficiency is the requirement of technology
use in core subject classes. Utilizing graphing calculators to learn in
mathematics courses and scientific sensors and probes for lab work in science
courses results in the highest level of technology competence with those
tools. The same is true for projects, reports, and presentations that employ
technology for any class. Professors who model uses of educational technology
in their own teaching and require their students to use it for assignments
greatly further student proficiency with technology. Monitoring of student
performance on such assignments is another source of information that can
be used in an overall assessment plan.
In addition to a strong foundation of technology competence, students
in teacher preparation programs must be able to apply technology in the
classroom. They must recognize that technology is a tool and a methodology
for teachers and students to use in the processes of teaching and learning.
Professional studies and methods courses provide the most direct way to
accomplish this. Again professors who model uses of educational technology
in their own teaching and require their students to use it for assignments
encourage prospective teachers to experience the power of technology in
the learning process. Numerous examples of technology applications must
be included as an integral part of learning how to teach the various disciplines,
and successful integration of technology into the contents should be included
in the course evaluations, which can be an important source of information
for assessment purposes.
Internships and field experiences make students in teacher preparation programs aware of technology initiatives in Virginia's K-12 public schools. Placement with cooperating teachers who effectively integrate technology into their teaching should be encouraged. Students should be encouraged to use technology for record-keeping and reporting on the pre-student teaching experience, as well as in lesson planning. Teacher-education programs should plan for and require the use of technology during the student teaching experience. Assessment of technology integration related to the Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools should be a major part of the total student teaching evaluation by both the cooperating teacher and the college supervisor.
Finally, surveying of student teachers upon completion of their internships
and of recent graduates of the teacher-education program can provide very
useful information about individuals' own assessment of their preparation
for entering the technological environment of K-12 schools.
The results of these various assessment techniques should be used to
make changes in efforts to integrate technology into the teacher-education
program, in an on-going cycle of continuous revision and improvement.
|Guideline 29:||Teacher-education programs should develop and regularly
revise a written plan setting forth strategies to measure student achievement
in meeting state-mandated technology standards and having requisite technology
|Guideline 30:||Teacher-education programs should use a variety of assessment
techniques in monitoring their students' achievements in technology, for
instance satisfactory completion of coursework, testing, surveying, portfolios,
observation and critique of student teaching performance, etc.
|Guideline 31:||Each student's proficiency in meeting the Virginia Technology
Standards for Instructional Personnel should be documented by the "College
Verification Form" in its present form. A signature on that document
assures the Virginia Department of Education that all requirements have
been met. Technology requirements should be treated the same as instruction
in reading methodology, grade point average, etc.
Albemarle County (Virginia) Public Schools. "Albemarle County Media,
Technology and Research Curriculum Glossary." Charlottesville,
Educational Testing Service. Computers and Classrooms: The Status
of Technology in U.S. Classrooms. Princeton, New Jersey, 1997.
Howe, Denis, et al. The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing.
International Society for Technology in Education. NCATE-Approved
Curriculum Guidelines for Educational Computing and Technology. Eugene,
National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. Standards,
Procedures and Policies for the Accreditation of Professional Education
Units. Washington, D.C., 1993.
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Criteria for Accreditation:
Commission on Colleges. Decatur, Georgia, 1996.
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Teachers & Technology:
Making the Connection (OTA-EHR-616). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1995.
Virginia Department of Education. Six-Year Educational Technology
Plan for Virginia. Richmond, Virginia, 1996.
Virginia Department of Education. Standards of Learning for Virginia
Public Schools. Richmond, Virginia, 1995.
Virginia Department of Education. Technology Standards for Instructional
Personnel. Richmond, Virginia, 1996.
Virginia Department of Education. Virginia State Technology Survey
Report (prepared by Quality Education Data, Denver, Colorado). Richmond,
Proposed Technology Standards for Instructional Personnel
(not available on server - click here to request hard copy)
access: Faculty and students have access when technological resources
are available them on a reasonably convenient basis, which might include
signing up for use, waiting a reasonable amount of time, and/or going to
a reasonably proximate off-campus site for use. (cf. "Ready
ready access: Faculty and students have ready access to technological
resources when those resources are available on-campus, without advance
notice, and with only minimal waiting time. (cf. "Access.")
recommendations: Courses of action that members of the Task Force have found effective.
"should" statements: Statements that indicate the best
practices for teacher-education programs seeking to ensure the technological
competence of their graduates.
suggestions: Courses of action that members of the Task Force
believe might be effective.
application: A computer software program you use.
backup: To make a copy of data and store it separately from the
browser: A program that allows a person to read hypertext; the
browser gives some means of viewing the comments of nodes (or "pages")
and of navigating from one node to another.
card: In hypermedia programs, an electronic card that is used
to store some type of data; cards have different components used for information
Category 5 cable: A shielded twisted pair cable capable of 100
megabytes per second; the highest rated wiring material, it is the industry
standard for desktop and office computing purposes.
CD-ROM: Compact Disk Read Only Memory. A Compact Disk can hold
over 600 MB of information stored optically.
CD-ROM drive: A disk drive which allows data, including audio,
to be accessed.
computer: An electronic machine that can perform calculations
and can process a large amount of information accurately and much more
rapidly than the human brain.
database: A collection of data organized for search and retrieval.
desktop: Main workspace of a windows-based operating system.
desktop publishing: A computerized layout that integrates graphics
and text to produce a professional looking document.
digitizer: A device that changes analog information into digital
information that the computer can use to produce certain effects.
e-mail: Messages, called electronic mail, that are sent and received
over a computer network from one person to an intended individual or group.
fiber optic cable: Cable connecting a communications system that
uses dozens of hair-thin strands of glass to move information at the speed
file server: Hardware and software that together provide file-handling
and storage functions for multiple users on a local area network.
FTP: File Transfer Protocol. A client-server protocol
that allows a user on one computer to transfer files to and from another
computer over a network.
FORTRAN: FORmula TRANslator. The first and still the most widely used programming language for numerical and scientific applications.
gateway server: A router or other kind of internetworking device.
graphing: A feature in a software program that allows numerical
data to be interpreted as a graph or chart.
hardware: The physical equipment of a computer, such as the screen/monitor,
the keyboard, the Central Processing Unit, and the storage devices.
HTML: Hypertext Markup Language. A programming language
used to develop Internet pages.
hypertext: "Active text" where one word is linked to
another into a computer program; a type of indexing system.
interface: Connection between two items (components) so they
can work together.
Internet: A global network of thousands of other computer networks
that offers e-mail and information retrieval services to millions of people.
LAN: Local Area Network. A network that exists at one
log in: The act of connecting with a computer system and entering
your user identification and password.
mail server: Hardware and software that together provide the
E-mail function for multiple users on a local area network.
multi-media: A computer program or presentation that involves
multiple forms of media (still images, moving video, sound, animation,
art, text, etc.).
network-ready: A computer is network-ready when it has built-in
capacity to be connected to a communication or connection system that lets
it communicate with another computer, printer, disk, or other device.
node: An addressable device attached to a computer network. More
often called a "host."
on-line: Communicating with other computers through a modem.
peripherals: Any part of a computer other than the central processing
unit (CPU) or working memory, such as disks, keyboards, monitors, mice,
printers, scanners, tape drives, microphones, speakers, cameras, etc.
platform: A specific combination of hardware and operating system
print server: Hardware and software that together provide the
printing function for multiple users on a local area network.
processing: The manipulation of data by a computer in accordance
with its instructions, or programming.
professional studies: Academic work in the field of education,
usually offered by or through a school or department of education.
program: A set of steps or a list of instructions that tells
a computer to do something.
programming A computer language, such as FORTRAN, used to write
programs that language: run on computers.
scanner: A peripheral device that converts text or pictures into
bit-mapped data that is put into a computer; the digitized images can then
server: A program that provides some service for other (client)
programs; also a computer that provides some service for other computers
connected to it via a network.
software: Program material for computers; instructions to the
central processing unit to tell it what to do with the data it receives.
sound card: A plug-in optional circuit card for an IBM-compatible
PC. It provides high-quality stereo sound output under program control.
spreadsheet: An applications program, typically used in number-related
information processing, that can quickly handle calculations and perform
telecommunications: Sending information electronically across
a distance using a computer and modem.
Telnet: The Internet standard protocol for remote log-in.
topology A network topology shows the hosts and the links between
them. A network layer must stay abreast of the current network topology
to be able to route packets to their final destinations.
video-conferencing: A discussion between two or more groups of
people who are in different places but can see and hear each other using
WAN: Wide Area Network. A network that exists over multiple
word processing: A process using a computer to input and edit
text; a computer application that resembles typewriting but allows instant
correction of errors, moving text to different locations, and other editing
world-wide web: An Internet client-server hypertext-distributed information retrieval system which originated from the CERN High-Energy Physics laboratories in Geneva, Switzerland
* Some definitions in this glossary were taken from The Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing by Denis Howe et al. and the "Albemarle County Media, Technology and Research Curriculum Glossary."
An Act to amend and reenact §§ 22.1-253.13:5, 23-9.2:3, 23-9.8, and 23-9.13:1 of the Code of Virginia, relating to training in educational technology.
Approved April 2, 1997
Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Virginia:
1. That §§22.1-253.13:5, 23-9.2:3, 23-9.8, and 23-9.13:1 of
the Code of Virginia are amended and reenacted as follows:
§22.1-253.13:5. Standard 5. Training and professional development.
A. The General Assembly and the Board of Education find that effective
educational leadership and personnel and appropriate programs of professional
development and training are essential for the advancement of public education
in the Commonwealth.
B. Each member of the Board of Education shall participate in in-service
programs on personnel, curriculum and current issues in education as part
of his service on the Board.
C. The Board of Education shall sponsor, conduct or provide advice on
(i) training and professional development of teachers, principals, supervisors,
division superintendents and other school staff and (ii) in-service programs
for school board members on personnel, curriculum and current issues in education.
The Board shall provide technical assistance
on professional development to local school boards designed to seek to
ensure that all instructional personnel are proficient in the use of educational
technology consistent with its Six-Year Educational Technology Plan for
D. Each local school board shall require (i) its members to participate
annually in in-service programs on personnel, curriculum and current issues
in education as part of their service on the local board and (ii) require
the division superintendent to participate annually in professional development
activities at the local, state or national levels.
E. Each local school board shall provide (i) a program of professional
development, as part of the license renewal process, to assist teachers
and principals in acquiring the skills needed to work with gifted students
and handicapped students and to increase student achievement, and (ii) a program of professional development in educational technology
for all instructional personnel, and (iii) a program of professional development
for administrative personnel designed to increase proficiency in instructional
leadership and management.
§23-9.2:3. Power of governing body of educational institution to
establish rules and regulations; offenses occurring on property of institution;
state direct student financial assistance.
A. In addition to the powers now enjoyed by it, the board of visitors
or other governing body of every educational institution shall have the
1. To establish rules and regulations for the acceptance of students
except that individuals who have been convicted of violating the federal
requirement to register for the selective service shall not be eligible
to receive any state direct student assistance; to establish rules and
regulations for the conduct of students while attending such institution;
and to establish rules and regulations for the dismissal of students who
fail or refuse to abide by such rules and regulations.
2. To establish rules and regulations for the employment of professors,
teachers, instructors and all other employees and provide for their dismissal
for failure to abide by such rules and regulations.
3. To provide parking and traffic rules and regulations on property
owned by such institution.
4. To establish guidelines for the initiation or induction into any
social fraternity or sorority in accordance with §18.2-56.
B. Upon receipt of an appropriate resolution of the board of visitors
or other governing body of an educational institution, the governing body
of a political subdivision which is contiguous to the institution shall
enforce state statutes and local ordinances with respect to offenses occurring
on the property of the institution.
The governing bodies of the public institutions of higher education
shall assist the State Council of Higher Education and the Virginia Student
Assistance Authorities in enforcing the provisions related to eligibility
for financial aid.
C. In order to improve the quality of the Commonwealth's work force
and educational programs, the governing bodies of the public institutions
of higher education shall establish programs to seek to ensure that all
graduates have the technology skills necessary to compete in the 21st Century
and, particularly, that all students matriculating in teacher-training
programs receive instruction in the effective use of educational technology.
§23-9.8. Cooperation with State Board of Education.
The Council shall cooperate with the State Board of Education in matters
of interest to both the public school and the state-supported institutions
of higher education, particularly in connection with coordination of the
college admission requirements and teacher training programs with the public school
program. In accomplishing this responsibility,
the Council shall consult with the Board on its Six-Year Educational Technology
Plan for Virginia and shall encourage the public institutions of higher
education to design programs which include the skills necessary for the
successful implementation of the Plan.
§23-9.13:1. Institutes for training teachers, administrators and
librarians; guidelines to be developed by the State Council of Higher Education.
A. From such funds as may be appropriated for this purpose and from
such gifts, donations, grants, bequests, and other funds as may be received
on its behalf, the Council shall establish institutes providing technology
training for teachers, administrators and librarians in the elementary
and secondary schools of the Commonwealth.
B. The institutes shall be established at no more than three sites,
which may include two-year and four-year public institutions of higher
C. The State Council of Higher Education shall, in consultation with
the Virginia Department of Education and the accredited teacher-education
programs of the Commonwealth's institutions of higher education, develop
guidelines to seek to ensure that all students matriculating in teacher-training
programs meet the standards embodied in Virginia's Technology Standards
for Instructional Personnel and have the requisite skills for the implementation
of the Board of Education's Six-Year Educational Technology Plan for Virginia.
Members of the Task Force included staff from the Compliance and Technology
divisions of the Virginia Department of Education; heads of a representative
sampling of teacher-education programs (public and private, large and small,
NCATE-accredited and non-NCATE-accredited) from across the Commonwealth,
representing the Virginia Association of Colleges of Teacher Education;
a faculty member from a school of education, representing the Association
of Teacher Educators of Virginia; two public school teachers, including
the 1996 Virginia Teacher of the Year; the chief academic officer of a
private college, representing the Council of Independent Colleges of Virginia;
and a school board member, representing the Advisory Board on Teacher Education
|Dean Alan A. Arroyo
School of Education
1000 Regent University Drive
Virginia Beach, VA 23464
|PHONE: (757) 579-4260
FAX: (757) 579-4318
|Prof. Glen L. Bull (Association of Teacher Educators - VA)
Curry School of Education
University of Virginia
405 Emmett Street
Charlottesville, VA 22903
|PHONE: (804) 924-7471
FAX: (804) 924-0747
|Ms. Mychele B. Brickner
(Fairfax County School Board and the
Advisory Board on Teacher Education and Licensure)
9732 South Park Circle
Fairfax Stations, VA 22039
|PHONE: (703) 569-0944
FAX: (703) 440-6736
|Provost Jerome Garris
(Council of Independent Colleges of Virginia)
Provost and Dean of the College
P. O. Box 5005
Ashland, VA 23005
|PHONE: (804) 752-7268
FAX: (804) 752-7231
|Ms. Barbara L. Huneycutt (teacher
at Walker Upper Elementary School
and Virginia's 1996 Teacher of the Year)
1564 Dairy Road
Charlottesville, VA 22903
|PHONE: H: (804) 296-2301
W: (804) 296-9151
FAX: (804) 977-7034
|Ms. Byrd G. Latham
Teacher Education Specialist
Division of Compliance
Virginia Department of Education
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
|PHONE: (804) 225-2104
FAX: (804) 225-2831
|Dr. Linda L. Logan
Department of Education
Virginia Wesleyan College
Norfolk, VA 23502
|PHONE: (757) 474-9492
FAX: (757) 461-5044
|Ms. Rhonda M. Miller (teacher
at Linkhorne Middle School)
1440 Northwood Circle
Lynchburg, VA 24503
|PHONE: H: (804) 384-9492
W: (804) 384-5150
FAX: (804) 384-2810
|Dr. Lan W. Neugent
Director of Instructional Media
Virginia Department of Education
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
|PHONE: (804) 786-2260
FAX: (804) 371-2455
|Dr. Jerry Niles
College of Human Resources
Blacksburg, VA 24061-0317
|PHONE: (540) 231-6426
FAX: (540) 231-7157
|Dean John S. Oehler
School of Education
Virginia Commonwealth University
P. O. Box 842020
Richmond, VA 23284
|PHONE: (804) 828-3382
FAX: (804) 828-1323
|Members ex officio:|
Associate Director for Technology
State Council of Higher Education
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
|PHONE: (804) 225-2600
FAX: (804) 225-2604
|Dr. Thomas A. Elliott
Assistant Superintendent for Compliance
Virginia Department of Education
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
|PHONE: (804) 371-2522
FAX: (804) 225-2831
|Dr. Ida J. Hill (retired 8/31/97)
Assistant Superintendent for Technology
Virginia Department of Education
101 North 14th Street
Richmond, VA 23219
|PHONE: (804) 225-2757
FAX: (804) 371-2099